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The BITSAVERS.ORG Documents Library: Digital Equipment Corporation

Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark DIGITAL, was a major American company in the computer industry. It was a leading vendor of computer systems, software and peripherals from the 1960s to the 1990s, with its PDP and VAX products were the most successful (in terms of sales) minicomputers. From 1957 until 1992 its headquarters was located in a former wool mill at Clock Tower Place, Maynard, Massachusetts. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, which subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002. Some parts of DEC, notably the compiler business and the Hudson, Massachusetts facility, were sold to Intel.

Digital Equipment Corporation should not be confused with the unrelated companies Digital Research, Inc or Western Digital, although the latter manufactured the LSI-11 chipsets used in DEC's low end PDP-11/03 computers.

Initially focusing on the small-end of the computer market allowed DEC to grow without its potential competitors making serious efforts to compete with them. Their PDP series of machines became popular in the 1960s, especially the PDP-8, widely considered to be the first successful minicomputer. Looking to simplify and update their line, DEC replaced most of their smaller machines with the PDP-11 in 1970, eventually selling over 600,000 units and cementing DECs position in the industry. Originally designed as a follow-on to the PDP-11, DEC's VAX-11 series was the first widely used 32-bit minicomputer, sometimes referred to as "superminis". These were able to compete in many roles with larger mainframe computers, such as the IBM System/370. The VAX was a best-seller, with over 400,000 sold, and its sales through the 1980s propelled the company into the second largest in the industry. At its peak, DEC was the second largest employer in Massachusetts, second only to the state government.

The rapid rise of the business microcomputer in the late 1980s, and especially the introduction of powerful 32-bit systems in the 1990s, quickly eroded the value of DEC's systems. DEC's last major attempt to find a space in the rapidly changing market was the DEC Alpha 64-bit RISC processor architecture. DEC initially started work on Alpha as a way to re-implement their VAX series, but also employed it in a range of high-performance workstations. Although the Alpha processor family met both of these goals, and, for most of its lifetime, was the fastest processor family on the market, it did little to affect the bottom line or repair the company's status.

The company was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq was focused on the enterprise market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq had less presence. However, Compaq had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own. The company subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002. As of 2007 some of DEC's product lines were still produced under the HP name.

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TOPIC atoz
data 1,151
file 733
program 721
digital equipment 655
error 648
command 630
mov 601
system 592
digital 565
address 537
device 494
memory 470
equipment corporation 455
software 444
mov mov 442
module 422
user 409
disk 329
dec 278
instruction 273
test 271
buffer 265
bus 254
control 251
jmp 233
system exerciser 224
output 223
input 215
power supply 214
exerciser 210
interrupt 205
macro 205
jsr 203
exerciser module 200
rev 200
fortran 197
parts list 195
processor 191
mode 189
block 184
paper tape 181
operating system 177
bne 172
assy 171
clr 165
files 165
cmp 163
tape 159
software product 154
corporation 150
task 148
magnetic tape 147
beq 145
byte 145
character 145
floating point 145
version 145
cpu 141
jms 140
print set 139
lac 138
signal 138
node 137
drive 135
interface 135
status register 134
dac 132
logic 132
network 131
code 130
terminal 124
software support 122
open open 121
cache 116
support services 115
monitor 114
commands 113
display 112
support 112
tst 111
routine 110
set 108
console 107
seq 106
type 106
support category 105
flag 104
command file 103
wrl 102
customer 101
unaltered release 100
status 98
controller 96
installation 96
power 95
switch register 95
unibus 94
file system 93
tad 93
cable 92
year period 91
document number 90
equipment 89
figure 89
handler 89
disk drive 88
vax 88
category 87
memory management 87
technical note 84
wrl technical 84
clk 83
parity 83
statement 83
symbol table 83
location 82
parity error 81
input file 80
pointer 80
vector 80
format 79
oooooog 79
print 79
reference manual 79
error message 78
pulse 78
rom 78
stack 78
symbol 78
string 77
dec form 76
oooooog oooooog 76
switch 76
block diagram 75
core memory 75
error messages 75
output file 75
diagnostic 74
message 74
server 74
virtual address 74
procedure 73
word count 73
function 72
csr 71
default 71
field 70
reference table 70
data transfer 68
designated support 67
address space 66
contents 66
decnet 65
dectape 65
disk cartridge 65
gnd 65
patch 65
record 65
vms 65
algorithm 64
cross reference 64
decus 64
pin 64
core 63
file specification 63
sheet 63
command string 62
license 62
movb 62
product 62
system generation 62
array 61
subroutine 61
source 60
clock 59
remote 59
sel 59
binary 58
current unaltered 58
document 58
halt 58
hlt 58
item 58
port 58
trap 58
int 57
specification 57
circuit 56
light pen 56
nodes 56
system disk 56
systems 56
user program 55
virtual 55
data path 54
programs 54
text 54
unit 54
data word 53
read data 53
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From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: AC-F080A-MC X11monLib Sep78
Topics: mov, module, seq, routine, oooooog, globl, jsr, endif, address, inline, mov mov, common...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: handbooks :: 1974 Field Service Technical Manual Dec74
Topics: processor, applicability, tech, rev, author, reference, approval, cross, title, revision, cross...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: modules :: modulesAndOptions :: Options and Modules List 197406
Topics: css, bfb, cat, snt, tpl, cont, engr, lbh, quad, ipg, css css, bfb bfb, lbh lbh, cat cat, eas eas,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: LCG GoodStuffNewsletters
Topics: confidential, error, ebus, company, debug, data, diagnostic, gnd, lcg, parity, company...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: modules :: modulesAndOptions :: Options and Modules List 197409
Topics: bfb, css, cont, cat, ipg, tpl, engr, snt, quad, arr, css css, bfb bfb, cat cat, ipg ipg, status...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0170 CJKDJB0 1123B
Topics: mov, test, emt, cpu, cmp, cluster, dnmac, mode, beq, clr, cpu cluster, mov mov, beq emt, cmp beq,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0187 CMT098.MCX 750uCod
Topics: rev, clokx, clock, rate, mode, address, operand, mdr, set, clock rate, clokx rev, floating point,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: decus :: confProceedings :: DECUS 1968 Fall
Topics: data, program, system, computer, display, control, output, input, core, device, data acquisition,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: Books :: 101 BASIC Computer Games Mar75
favoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 1 reviews )
Topics: print, vou, goto, vour, input, program, gosub, computer, game, print print, program listing,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: 780 :: fiche :: EP-ES0AA-DL-124 1of6 780uCode Jan82
Topics: pcs, microcode, patches, resvrd, patch, alu, fpla, fiche, code, frame, pcs microcode, microcode...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: KL10 :: 1080 2040 2060 Engineering Functional Spec
Topics: error, spec, iii, address, parity, data, rev, memory, user, iii iii, parity error, functional spec,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: KL10 :: MP01712 DN20F Engineering Drawings Mar84
Topics: bus, data, rev, assy, digital, corporation, dec, sheet, item, variation, equipment corporation,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: KI10 :: KI10 Schem
Topics: key, scad, clk, clr, inst, cyc, ptr, sync, assertion, cycle, signal names, low assertion, assertion...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0109 CSRQAD0 RQDX1
Topics: mov, oooooog, exerciser, error, cmp, addr, jsr, routine, seq, ascii, oooooog oooooog, test...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1105 :: 1105S Schem
Topics: goto, orr, rom, dec, assy, brg, oooo, nxt, dpf, rev, orr orr, equipment corporation, digital...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: 780 :: MP00496 KA780 Nov77
Topics: data, bus, buff, sbi, csa, digital, buf, clk, alu, latch, digital equipment, read data, write data,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: ultrix-32 :: 3.0 :: AA-MF08A-TE ULTRIX-32 Supplementary Documents Vol.3-System Manager
Topics: gen, file, system, sys, command, program, pgm, files, disk, device, file system, system call, root...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: Books :: Bell-ComputerEngineering
Topics: memory, data, processor, design, computer, instruction, logic, figure, control, instruction set,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: rsts :: V07 :: RSTSE V7.0 InternalTraining
Topics: file, oooooo, disk, device, data, cache, caching, monitor, system, program, resident library, data...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: KL10 :: EK-OKL10-MG-004 KL10 Maintenance Guide Update Jun86
Topics: error, command, data, port, buffer, node, address, chk, parity, debug, parity error, error code,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0107 CZRCHB0 RC25fmtr
Topics: mov, ascii, oooooog, formatter, command, rev, error, disk, patch, code, disk formatter, zrchbs...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1160 :: MAINDEC-11-DQFPB-B FP11-E May77
Topics: test, data, set, initial, float, mov, ptr, scope, fec, jsr, data set, test data, uata set, scope...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: modules :: modulesAndOptions :: editedOptionModuleLst Apr83
Topics: jam, dlf, mas, jbc, mgr, bin, upd, continued, jew, ldlk, jam jam, mas mas, jbc jbc, dlf dlf, ldlk...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: ultrix-32 :: 3.0 :: AA-MF06A-TE ULTRIX-32 Supplementary Documents Vol.1-General User
Topics: gen, command, file, sys, text, commands, unix, input, lines, pgm, system call, reference manual,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: ra81 :: MP01359 RA81 Oct82
Topics: servo, rev, aaa, item, clk, assembly, cer, document, drive, cont, parts list, servo control, top...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1104 :: MP00019 1104 EngrDrws Feb78
Topics: bus, assy, dec, digital, pin, gnd, rev, gno, drawing, print, bus bus, print set, digital equipment,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: unibus :: RP11-C schemMay1973
Topics: gnd, bus, pin, lpr, gno, clr, silo, exceptions, remarks, bay, pin order, order bay, length...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1160 :: MAINDEC-11-DQKDC-A 1160cpuExerc Jan77
Topics: mov, hlt, cpu, error, address, hov, cmp, tst, stack, data, mov mov, serifs cpu, series cpu, cpu...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: ra90 :: EK-ORA90-SV-003 RA90 RA92 Service Jun90
Topics: error, drive, servo, hda, ecm, internal, digital, sdi, fault, disk, digital internal, error codes,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: graphics :: GT40 Graphic Terminal Engineering Drawings Feb73
Topics: wire, bus, hanq, gnd, rom, dec, assy, goto, hand, corporation, hanq wire, hand wire, equipment...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: engineering :: EL-ENGRS-OM-000 Engineering Orientation Manual Apr82
Topics: engineering, product, systems, software, digital, group, products, design, development,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: competitiveAnalysis :: Engineering Strategy Review Mar82
Topics: ibm, systems, dec, software, product, products, computer, system, nec, computing, company...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1160 :: MAINDEC-11-DQKKA-A 1160cacheDiag mar77
Topics: mov, cache, error, test, address, parity, data, tag, hov, log, parity error, mov mov, cache...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: 730 :: MP01364 FP730 Apr82
Topics: hex, dot, fpoo, fpo, loc, bus, bin, froc, fpon, fpoc, bus fpo, hex loc, hex dot, dot bin, bin dot,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0254 index 85-07
Topics: apr, oct, jul, feb, dec, sep, jun, aug, nov, tech man, number description, device number, device...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: 780 :: MP00534 KC780 Nov77
Topics: lct, assy, lsr, lsp, jump, crc, floppy, digital, ict, rotate, mum mum, digital equipment, floppy...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp8 :: handbooks :: SmallComputerHandbook Mar67
Topics: program, data, instruction, memory, content, linc, flag, octal, address, core memory, data break,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: Sze Introduction to DEC System-10 1974
Topics: file, program, command, fortran, data, batch, user, output, terminal, commands, fortran program,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0113 CZRQBC0 RQDX1fmtr
Topics: mov, oooooog, rdrx, command, routine, disk, global, formatter, rev, error, rdrx disk, global...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: ra82 :: MP01427 RA82 Jun86
Topics: servo, rev, data, clk, item, enable, document, assembly, sel, erm, parts list, document number, top...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0100 COKDAB0
Topics: mov, error, cmp, test, data, apr, beq, clr, branch, jsr, mov mov, cpu error, cmp beq, oooooo...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: decus :: confProceedings :: DECUS 1967 Fall
Topics: data, program, system, california, computer, channel, user, peak, jmp, digital, data link, lawrence...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp15 :: XVM MUMPS Listing Sep75
Topics: lac, dac, jmp, char, sad, call, oac, isz, tad, mumps, char pos, call ochari, lac dac, call save,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: KA10 :: DEC-10-HMBB-D KA10 Maint Vol2 Set2
Topics: clr, set, key, pulse, lob, bus, pin, kaio, arlt, list kaio, twp list, pin color, general wiring,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp8 :: handbooks :: Small Computer Handbook 1973
Topics: data, memory, dec, flag, program, instruction, interrupt, octal, device, data break, word count,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: xxdp :: fiche 200dpi :: 0133 CZTSCA0 TS11pt3
Topics: mov, trap, command, jsr, tssr, packet, test, data, ckloop, fatflg, selected trap, mov mov, packet...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: ssi :: AA-5074O-RK System Software Information Jun88
Topics: vax, guide, spd, microvms, operating, product, software, base, manual, documentation, base...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: Monitor :: DEC-10-MRZA-D Five Series Monitor Installation Guide Jul70
Topics: file, monitor, user, block, error, disk, data, return, blocks, str, file structure, error return,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp8 :: pdp8a :: PDP8A Schems Apr81
Topics: item, assy, data, rev, dec, memory, rom, digital, variation, bbuf, document number, parts list,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1140 :: PDP-1140 System Engr Drawings Rev P Jun74
Topics: dec, bbbb, bus, assy, corporation, module, clk, drawing, rev, xxx, bbbb bbbb, equipment...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: decus :: decuscope :: Decuscope Vol06 1967
Topics: program, decus, university, data, fortran, programs, dec, jmp, dectape, massachusetts, digital...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp15 :: XV100 Schematics
Topics: bus, api, ind, assy, mdl, bfl, coax, dsr, ino, sum, sum bus, shift bus, bus bit, power supply, unit...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: qbus :: MP00706-ET-LSI-11 Dec81
Topics: dal, lat, bdal, dat, ram, mux, clk, kxti, mib, csr, digital equipment, equipment corporation, chk...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: modules :: modulesAndOptions :: Options and Modules List 197503
Topics: bfb, cont, cat, css, quad, arr, periph, interface, ipg, oem, cat cat, bfb bfb, arr arr, async...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: TOPS20 :: AA-4166E-TM TOPS-20 Monitor Calls Reference Ver 5 Dec82
Topics: monitor, file, err, process, error, block, byte, jsys, pointer, monitor calls, err err, argument...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: vms :: 5.0 :: AA-LB22A-TE VMS 5.0 Release Notes Apr88
Topics: vms, vax, version, system, command, file, upgrade, license, procedure, enter, vms version, release...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: 1144 :: MP00897 11X44sys Dec79
Topics: bus, pax, int, assy, digital, rev, data, item, code, sel, int bus, digital equipment, document...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: terminal :: vt340 :: K-TC-VT340 Schematic Feb87
Topics: rev, mfd, assy, module, document, alu, bpo, parts, gnd, parts list, document number, number rev,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: priceLists :: US Systems Services Price List Dec91
Topics: vms, vax, license, warranty, ultrix, model, software, system, upg, upgrade, price list, number...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: graphics :: GT48A Engineering Drawings Oct75
Topics: dec, stack, mux, wire, ssib, assy, silo, etch, llll, rom, add wire, digital equipment, cut etch,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: vax :: bi :: KDB50 Microcode Listing Sep88
Topics: mov, oooooo, error, sdi, buffer, bar, assembler, digital, version, nop, assembler version, digital...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: decus :: programCatalogs :: DECUS Catalog PDP-11 Aug78
Topics: program, source, media, operating, price, programs, memory, hardware, user, fortran, media price,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp12 :: DEC-12-SRZB-D PDP12 SysRef
Topics: data, instruction, program, memory, octal, contents, tape, flag, address, data break, linc mode,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: modules :: modulesAndOptions :: Options and Modules List 197312
Topics: bfb, css, cat, ipg, snt, cont, tpl, engr, interface, control, bfb bfb, cat cat, css css, paper...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: qbus :: micronoteReprints
Topics: memory, address, mov, bus, components, data, bootstrap, modules, module, components group,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: rm03 :: MP00350 RM03schem
Topics: lit, data, cont, ecc, tsb, clk, dat, lltttltl, csi, loc, loc loc, data tsb, lltttltl lltttltl, dat...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: graphics :: VT11 :: GT40 Graphic Terminal Engineering Drawings Feb73
Topics: wire, bus, hand, dec, gnd, assy, rom, hanq, goto, corporation, hand wire, bus bus, hanq wire,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: handbooks :: Digital Logic Handbook 1967
Topics: input, output, pulse, converter, inputs, diode, digital, load, voltage, nsec, clamped load, pulse...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp11 :: rsx11 :: Micro RSX 3.0 Jul85 :: AA-Y539B-TC Micro RSX V3.0 Users Guide Jun85
Topics: command, file, indirect, default, batch, symbol, edt, device, files, user, indirect command,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: rm05 :: MP01075 RM05 Part1
Topics: ttt, itt, tat, att, lit, tit, tta, comt, ata, css, document number, digital equipment, data...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: unibus :: TC11EngDngs
Topics: ooo, wcm, dat, oooo, bus, assy, coco, cmcm, corporation, obus, ooo ooo, equipment corporation,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp12 :: PDP12 MaintVol3 SchemsMar69
Topics: corporation, ins, mem, cps, assy, cpt, ext, digital, mpg, bus, equipment corporation, digital...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: pdp10 :: KL10 :: MP00301 KL10PV Jun80
Topics: adr, ebus, sel, data, clk, csh, ibnf, req, cram, ccu, ibnf ieev, csh dir, buf adr, par err, ebus...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: linc8 :: LINC8 Schematic Sep71
Topics: linc, ind, cable, corporation, data, mtg, chan, digital, equipment, conn, equipment corporation,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.dec :: disc :: ra60 :: MP01421 RA60 Dec82
Topics: rev, urt, sel, clk, variation, data, mfd, ecl, document, assy, parts list, top document, item top,...